[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Chaoguang Wang and Gino Yu on The relationship between players value systems and their In-game behavior in a massively multiplayer online role-playing game

Chaoguang Wang, Gino Yu, Digital Entertainment Lab, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

This study examines the relationship between player’s value systems based upon the Emergent Cyclical Levels of Existence Theory by Clare W. Graves (Graves, 2005) and their actions in playing a massively multiplayer online role-playing game. Online survey data from 5,427 players of the Ghost II containing value systems and demographic variables were analyzed for this study. A number of positive correlations were found between the score of Red (CP) value system and the in-game metrics that were collected to represent their playing behavior.Participants that scored high on Red value system also tend to spend more real money in the game, level up their character and ability as quickly as possible, and seek for other achievement in the forms offered by game world. These characteristics for fun, power and immediate gratification are also predicted by the Red (CP) value system in Clare W. Graves’ model. With this work, we show that there is a correlation between in-game behavior and real-life behavioral attitudes as modeled by the Emergent Cyclical Levels of Existence Theory. The finding provides valuable information for how to better design, evaluate and understand enjoyment in games. By understanding a player’s behavioral attitude within a game, we can design game mechanics and situations to facilitate personal transformation through game playing.

Author Info

Chaoguang Wang is a PHD candidate in the School of Design in the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. His research focuses on the value systems of players and their playing behavior online.He had worked professionally in games development for 6 plus years as a game researcher and game designer, with solid practical hands-on experience and understanding of game development.

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Tilak Jha on Linking the Old with the New through Digital Games

Tilak Jha,  Zhejiang University

That old generation is picking up its interest in digital games is a proven phenomenon now in most aging countries with proper digital infrastructure. China’s demographic trend also points towards an era of digital games among old generation. While targeting the older richer generation as a business model is the popular trend, free games continue to bring the push factor, indeed with parallel source of revenue from advertising or elsewhere. Amid the usual financial give and take digital gaming model that usually crowds the non-Chinese and especially the western digi-games model, there is a need for a different form of barter. This is of conceptualizing a platform like the freeware Adventure Maker that brings the older to the closer through something that may be christened “Project Old-New Digital Story” or “Being Young Digitally” or simply “Keep in Touch.” This ideational project would bring the historical usual storytellers – the old, and listeners – the young, together on a digital gaming platform. Stories and games can be recreated through animation, simulations and augmented reality. It could also link up potential old and new together to be part of their digital family – not to deny the emotional and even health benefits of a holistic digital gaming ecosystem. This paper proposes to study the existing digital gaming model to propose ideas for such a future project that brings the old and new in re-imagining life and struggles, and the world beyond inside. At a time when people are travelling on average more than their previous generational counterparts, this study proposes to look into models outside China that are likely to work here. It thus approaches this subject based on a review of old and young gamers’ interest across geographies.

Author info

Tilak Jha has done Masters in Convergent Journalism from AJK Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and M. Phil in Chinese Studies from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is currently studying Public Policy on Asian Future Leaders Scholarship in Zhejiang University, Hangzhou. His research interests include communication, international relations and public policy issues.

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Philip Lin on Contextualizing Cyber-Soldier in the East:A Reflection on the Colonized War Game Experience of Taiwanese Gamers

Philip Lin, Providence University

In the last 15 years, the first-person-shooter (FPS) genre has grown to be the most recognizable genre of digital games and happened to produce several most-wanted war-themed games played by millions of global gamers. Especially after 9/11, the popular FPS game titles, e.g. the America’s Army (AA), Call of Duty (COD), Medal of Honour (MOD) and Battlefield series based on World War II stories or contemporary world conflicts were constantly monitored, supported or partly sponsored by the U.S. military authorities. With both commercial and ideological interests, the Pentagon and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) already had enormous budgets invested in various game simulation projects, which directly encourage talented game developers/programmers to continue creating realistic virtual war simulation and producing the gaming scenarios and experiences closed to real combat-situations. Historically speaking, games of this kind bring more attention to Western gamers, who were normally defined as closely attached to crime, shooter and sport game genres. (see Kent 2004). However, recent reports have shown the number of FPS gamers and communities in the East Asian countries, such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan is increasing very intensively. This strongly reflects that, through the power of gaming, Pentagon’s ‘perception management campaigns’ begin to pay off overseas and bring more about foreign audiences’ interests in role-playing soldiers.

In this regard, this study organized several interviews with Taiwanese gamers. From examining their self-reflected experiences, it is evident that Hollywood war movies bring great influences in Taiwanese gamers’ war imagination. The war-themed FPS gamers in Taiwan construct their virtual and transnational belongings by projecting and carrying forward their previous war TV/film-viewing experience into their gaming process. Playing the war-themed FPS games, as one interviewee (Samuel Chuang, 31-year-old male sales executive) described, provides a perfect escape trajectory that “finds somewhere to let out one’s boiling emotions and feelings after watching HBO’s Band of Brother…just like the feeling you have to do something after watching porn.”

Author info

Philip Lin is Assistant Professor at the Department of Mass Communication, Providence University

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Banwo Adetoro Olaniyi on The Interplay between Digital Gaming and the Rise of Nationalism in China

Banwo Adetoro Olaniyi, Xiamen University

The use of Technology to disseminate information and transmit cultural practices on a wide scale is a phenomenal practice in the modern world. While digital technology offers playful tinkering, it also offers a diverse way to capture and imbibe formal and informal ideas.

China’s digital game industry has developed in a dramatic form and has come of age; the gaming industry through the use of information technology has been adopted or engaged to influence the rise of nationalism in China, this trend is monumental and evidential. With the rise of the public gaming in China, several private and public organizations are using the instruments of gaming to develop, design and create socio-cultural games that would build and stir patriotic emotions within the nation state. Digital games in China therefore offer a new approach to entertainment with the aim of educating the player on historical facts and exposure into the world of technology. With the negative implication of youth addiction and violence the digital gaming industry is a flourishing one with multiply consequences.

This paper tends to examine the influence of digital gaming with the rise of nationalism; it tends to scrutinize the effect of gaming on the individual, the author intends to identify the interplay of entertainment, education and economic benefits as the central forces enhancing the development of the game in modern China.

Author info

Adetoro Banwo is a graduate of Political Science (Ogun State University), Masters in International Management (University of Liverpool, England), Masters of Chinese Philosophy (Xiamen University) and currently a Doctoral Candidate of Chinese History at Xiamen University. He is vast in Chinese History, culture, tradition and philosophy.

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Teng Yuning on The Moving Landscape – Human Rights Revolution Intrigued by the Visual Revolution Represented in Video Games

TENG Yuning (滕宇宁)


风景作为艺术史中一个典型的艺术类型(genre),非常清晰地反映艺术史的演变线索;同时根据政治图像学(political iconography)的理论和方法研究,图像是复杂的社会行为的投射,背后蕴藏有人为的诉求和干涉从而实现权威对民众(观看者)的控制。本文以游戏中的风景为例,分析移动观看图像的视点改变如何影响到对画面/景象的理解,从而对图像的政治加以警惕和抵抗,从某种意义上实现信息接受的平等,以达到一种精神上的自由的可能。

移动焦点在传统静态绘画中已经有所体现,即中国古代的长卷绘画。长卷的把玩方式即是拿在手中一部分一部分的展开,画面中的风景题材或者人物在风景中的活动就在展开的运动中显现为一种叙事结构。这种方式同西方绘画的单一焦点画面非常不同,也可以看作是中国传统审美中的一种移动的倾向。电影、视频艺术(Video Art)的活动影像将这一方式推进,在运动的影像中,风景参与叙事和政治表达。特别是视频艺术作为当代艺术的一种方式,以激进的形式将移动带来的规定性明确而激烈地进行批判。


Author info

Teng Yuning’s main academic responsibility at Centre for Visual Studies (CVS) is managing the Chinese Modern Art Archive (CMAA), which collects and archives Chinese Contemporary Art dating back to 1986, establishes on-line database, hosts academic study projects, professional exhibition, international forum and student seminars, etc. CVS is a national base for the research of traditional Chinese art, Chinese contemporary art and world art history, and now also the Secretariat and one of the main organizers of the 34th CIHA (the Comité International d’Histoire de l’Art) which will be held in China in 2016. As the deputy director, Yuning is in charge of the organizing work and academic preparation for this international conference.

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Zhang Wanyi on Crowdsourcing Image Annotation with Gamification

Zhang Wanyi, College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University

Nowadays  computer  and  other  electronic  equipment  have  become  highly intelligent  with  the  development  of  computer  science  and  technology. However, computer is still not smart enough to identify images automatically, and this problem has plagued the scientists for a long time. In recent years, scientists work on the Deep Learning and Neural Network Algorithm, and it helps to solve the automatically image annotation problem. However, since the operation of human brain is much more complicated than any machine learning models, the annotation results can not satisfy us sometimes, and may need the subsequent manual validation. In our work, we propose a crowdsourcing system to collect the manual annotation produced by users. We treat every single user as an independent image annotation processor, and crowdsourcing is equivalent to a Distributed Image Annotation System which helps us to accomplish the annotation of images efficiently and quickly. And most of all, the users’ language diversity leads to the multilingual annotation of the images, even the Deep Learning algorithm cannot get the multilingual results at one time. In order to improve the user engagement and behavior, we design a game system to help us to attract users’ interest and add some elements of gamification such as PBL and the mechanism of competition and cooperation. In our presentation we will introduce the detail of our game system design and discuss the role played by gamification from the perspective of computer science.

Author info

Zhang Wanyi is a master candidate in College of Computer Science and Technology of Jilin University. Zhang Wanyi received her B.Sc degree in computer science in Jilin University. Her current research interests include Data Mining in Open Science, and Gamification in Education. Zhang Wanyi have published a workshop paper in SIGCHI 2015.


[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Ida Jorgensen and Hanna Wirman on Inclusive game design for animals

Ida Kathrine Hammeleff Jørgensen , Hanna Wirman, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, School of Design

In recent years a new market has appeared in the game industry: digital games for animal players. The prospects of digital games for animal players are as many as the challenges the designer faces when designing games for these strange players.

Our ongoing research in orangutan play, with the aim of building serious games to enrich the lives of captive orangutans, suggests that the strangeness of the other species challenges the way we usually design games (Wirman, 2014) and calls for new methods that bridge the gap between a human designer and a non-human animal player.

While conventional game design for human players typically follows the prescriptions of user-centered design, this methodology poses a number of problems when dealing with non-human players: How to approach informants who cannot express themselves verbally? How to recognize and interpret play that may not look like ours or that may not look like play to us? How can we take into consideration the bodily and sensorimotor abilities of the non-human animal?

This paper aims to build a design research methodology (Koskinen, 2014) for the design of digital games for animal players, which takes into consideration the gap between human designers and animal players. Building on past research on orangutan play (Wirman, 2013: 2014) this paper reviews a number of concepts and methods and discuss how they can be applied in game design for animals. The methods discussed come from various academic fields such as HCI, ACI (Mancini, 2011), ethology (Burghardt 2005), ethnography, (Kohn, 2013) and zoo semiotics (Sebeok, 2001) as well as practices such as interaction design and empathic design (Koskinen, 2013). Common to these methods and concepts is that can guide our study of and game design to not only animals whose abilities are different from the norm, but also for humans with disabilities.

Author Info

Ida Kathrine Hammeleff Jørgensen is a Research Associate at the School of Design of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. She earned her Master’s degree from the IT University of Copenhagen in 2013. Ida’s research interests evolve around non-human animal play, game design, and design methodologies as well as how meaning is produced in games and the semiotics of play.

Dr. Hanna Wirman is a Research Assistant Professor at the School of Design of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University where she leads the M.Sc. Game Development study stream. Her research focuses on games and play approaching these primarily from the point of view of players and shared creative practices in design. Hanna’s current research addresses non-human animals as players and she builds games for orangutans’ enrichment and for cross-species communication. Hanna leads educational and socially responsible game design and development projects working closely with the local community and NGOs in Hong Kong.

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Hao Xu and Donglei Song on Gamified Learning and Teaching Environment: The Web Design Case Study

Hao Xu, Donglei Song. Jilin University

The situation of Chinese class now is that, teacher gives homework and students just have to finish it. Everyone does the same work. It is boring enough. Students have lost their enthusiasm to this boring homework. Also it is lack of reflection, student often hand in their work without any reflection or only give them a score.

Our aim is to improve the ability of web design of the students and team work spirit through the stage mode in the course “Web Design” in Jilin University.

Stage mode changes the traditional way in the class. In the past, Student only needed to listen to the teacher and do the same boring homework. Now students can choose the homework as they like. When they are going through the difficulties, they can find out how is their learning path like and what job fits them well. After analyzing the paths of students, the system will recommend the suitable partners to finish the final task.

Some basic elements like points and leader board are also used in this program according to the quality of the work and the submission time.

The experiment will bring a large amount of meaningful date, analyzing the learning path or pattern of students is useful for both students themselves and teacher. The result can help the students to find suitable partners also can help teachers to enhance teaching.

Author info

Hao Xu
College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun, China

Donglei Song
College of Software Engineering, Jilin University, China

[Chinese DiGRA 2015] Sathya Naidu, Hanna Wirman and Daniel Shek on Video Games as a Platform for Holistic Development of Adolescents

Sathya Naidu and Hanna Wirman and Daniel Shek, School of Design ,Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Schools in China and Hong Kong often ignore the importance of providing a platform for adolescents to learn and understand the core constructs of life not limited to Social Competence, Moral Competence, Self-identity, Self-determination, Bonding, and Spirituality etc. As the adolescents grow older, this lack of understanding the constructs of life often leave them unprepared for the future. This paper describes the use of PATHS Digital Games as a platform for Adolescents (secondary and senior secondary school students) to play, learn and understand the importance of life constructs. The mini games are designed to be played over three years with the constructs varying from the obvious and most expected to abstract constructs like spirituality and bonding. All government schools in Hong Kong will include the PATHS Digital Games as a part of the secondary and senior secondary curriculum.

A series of 19 mini games were designed and developed to allow students to play based on real life scenarios in a game world setting (eg: relationships at home, school, bus stop, holy places etc.). The process involved research and development of unique art styles, game mechanics, design and development and a hexagonal web based scoring system.

This paper will discuss the research, design, development and testing methodology of the games at various stages including Alpha and Beta phases. Tests were conducted with sample sizes of student groups varying from 10 – 30. The final version of PATHS Digital Games were tested with a group of secondary and senior secondary students. The results calculated had over 80% of the students understanding the importance of learning these constructs which will be detailed in this paper.

This paper will also discuss the holistic development of adolescents through positive reinforcement by helping them recognize their abilities, building bonds with others, helping them develop positive beliefs in life, and setting clear future.

Author Info

Sathya Naidu prior to completing his Master’s degree from Hong Kong Polytechnic School of Design has worked in the area of serious games for training and games for simulation. Sathya is currently working as a Project Associate at School of Design for a project known as Ubiquitous Learning and Integrated Pedagogy; a collaboration between multiple schools in Hong Kong. His primary role is to research, design and experiment the use of games for mobile platforms to help address pedagogical issues.

[Chinese DiGRA 2015 ]Li Qiang and Erik Champion on The Application and Development of VR Interactive Technology in Serious Game

Li Qiang, Shenyang Aerospace University
Erik Champion, Curtin University

Traditional game design skills can be used in all kinds of fields such as education, architecture, city plan and virtual cultural heritage and we can call this kind of game as serious game. However, these kinds of user experience that traditional serious game has brought to us lack the properties of interaction between reality and virtual world. With the development of VR techniques, all kinds of motion sensing input devices sprouted out, such as Microsoft Kinect sensor, Leap motion and Oculus Rift. Using these technologies to realize the serious game has a good sense of immersion and interactivity. To create an immersive and hand-free controlling serious game and evaluate its effects we designed a serious game related with virtual cultural heritage based on Kinect and we tested the application of Leap Motion and Oculus Rift on traditional car racing game. In this paper we analyzed and discussed the application of motion sensing technique in serious game and its influence.

Author info

Li Qiang is Visiting scholar in Media culture and creative art school of Curtin University Australia. Lecturer of Design&Art School of Shenyang Aerospace University.Research direction: Virtual Reality,Digital Games,Interactive design, Industrial design.

Professor Erik Champion (PhD Melbourne) is Professor of Cultural Visualisation at Curtin University. A past ARC SPIRT PhD scholarship holder, he has received Fulbright and Greece-NZ scholarships, a Distinguished Lecturer Invitation from UC Berkeley, funding from the Danish government and Apple, and facilitated major grants and awards in Europe and America from organisations such as the EU and COST, ERASMUS, European Digital Humanities, Mellon Foundation, Digital Heritage Centre funding (York, Leiden, Uppsala, Aarhus), and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). He was a team leader of Research and Engagement for DARIAH (www.dariah.eu) and project leader of DIGHUMLAB Denmark, a 5-year 30 million DKK national infrastructure project. He writes in the area of game design and virtual heritage, books include Playing With The Past and Critical Gaming: Interactive History and Virtual Heritage.